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Prevention of Disease through Vaccination
Choose a diseases/disorder that you learned about this week that can be prevented through vaccination.
Research the disease background including etiology, symptoms, treatment, and prognosis.
Write a 1-2 page paper.
Address the following in your paper:
- When was the vaccine developed and how has it impacted the disease eradication?
- How does the vaccine work and how is it given?
Expert Solution Preview
This assignment will focus on the prevention of disease through vaccination. The chosen topic for the paper is a specific disease or disorder that can be prevented through vaccination. The aim of this assignment is to research the disease’s background, including its etiology, symptoms, treatment, and prognosis. Additionally, the paper will discuss the development of the vaccine, its impact on disease eradication, how it works, and the methods of administration.
Polio, also known as poliomyelitis, is a highly infectious viral disease caused by the poliovirus. It primarily affects children under the age of five, but it can also affect older children and adults. Poliovirus spreads through contaminated food, water, or person-to-person contact.
The initial symptoms of polio may include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck, and pain in the limbs. In severe cases, the poliovirus attacks the nervous system leading to muscle weakness, paralysis, and in some cases, death.
There is no known cure for polio. Medical interventions primarily focus on supportive care to alleviate symptoms and complications. Physiotherapy is often required for individuals with paralysis caused by polio. Prevention through vaccination is the most effective way to combat polio.
The prognosis for individuals infected with polio varies. Most individuals infected with the virus experience mild symptoms or no symptoms at all and make a full recovery. However, in severe cases, especially those leading to paralysis, the prognosis can be long-term disability or even death.
Vaccine Development and Impact:
The first polio vaccine, the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), was developed by Dr. Jonas Salk in 1955. Subsequently, the oral polio vaccine (OPV) was developed by Dr. Albert Sabin in 1962. The introduction of these vaccines has had a significant impact on the eradication of polio.
The implementation of widespread vaccination programs using IPV and OPV led to a drastic reduction in polio cases worldwide. The combined efforts of various organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF, contributed to the successful eradication of polio in many countries.
Vaccine Mechanism and Administration:
The IPV and OPV work by stimulating the body’s immune response to produce antibodies against the poliovirus. The IPV contains inactivated poliovirus, while the OPV contains a weakened but live poliovirus. Both vaccines aim to stimulate immunity without causing the actual disease.
The IPV is administered by injection, typically in the form of multiple doses given in infancy and childhood. OPV, on the other hand, is given orally as drops. The oral administration of the vaccine using OPV makes it more practical for mass vaccination campaigns.
In conclusion, the development and implementation of the polio vaccine have made a significant impact on the eradication of the disease. The IPV and OPV vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against the poliovirus. The vaccination process involves multiple doses given through injections or oral administration. Through vaccination efforts, the world has witnessed a remarkable decline in polio cases, bringing us closer to the eradication of this debilitating disease.